Since RS232 is not compatible with today’s microprocessor and controllers, we need a line driver (voltage converter) to convert the RS232’s signal to TTL voltage levels that will be acceptable to 8051 TxD and RxD pins. So MAX 232 converts from RS232 voltage levels to TTL voltage levels and vice versa.
The MAX232 has two sets of line drivers for transferring and receiving data. The line drivers used for TxD are called T1 and T2, while the line drivers Rxd are designated as R1 and R2. One of any set is used

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