AT commands are instructions used to control a modem. AT is the abbreviation of ATtention. Every command line starts with "AT" or "at". That's why modem commands are called AT commands. Many of the commands that are used to control wired dial-up modems, such as ATD (Dial), ATA (Answer), ATH (Hook control) and ATO (Return to online data state), are also supported by GSM/GPRS modems and mobile phones. Besides this common AT command set, GSM/GPRS modems and mobile phones support an AT command set that is specific to the GSM technology, which includes SMS-related commands like AT+CMGS (Send SMS message), AT+CMSS (Send SMS message from storage), AT+CMGL (List SMS messages) and AT+CMGR (Read SMS messages). Note that the starting "AT" is the prefix that informs the modem about the start of a command line.
Here are some of the tasks that can be done using AT commands with a GSM/GPRS modem or mobile phone:
• Get basic information about the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For example, name of manufacturer (AT+CGMI), model number (AT+CGMM), IMEI number (International Mobile Equipment Identity) (AT+CGSN) and software version (AT+CGMR).
• Get basic information about the subscriber. For example, MSISDN (AT+CNUM) and IMSI number (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) (AT+CIMI).
• Get the current status of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For example, mobile phone activity status (AT+CPAS), mobile network registration status (AT+CREG), radio signal strength (AT+CSQ), battery charge level and battery charging status (AT+CBC).
• Send (AT+CMGS, AT+CMSS), read (AT+CMGR, AT+CMGL), write (AT+CMGW) or delete (AT+CMGD) SMS messages and obtain notifications of newly received SMS messages (AT+CNMI).
• Read (AT+CPBR), write (AT+CPBW) or search (AT+CPBF) phonebook entries.
• Perform security-related tasks, such as opening or closing facility locks (AT+CLCK),
checking whether a facility is locked (AT+CLCK) and changing passwords (AT+CPWD). (Facility lock examples: SIM lock [a password must be given to the SIM card every time the mobile phone is switched on] and PH-SIM lock [a certain SIM card is associated with the mobile phone. To use other SIM cards with the mobile phone, a password must be entered.])
• Control the presentation of result codes / error messages of AT commands. For example, you can control whether to enable certain error messages (AT+CMEE) and whether error messages should be displayed in numeric format or verbose format (AT+CMEE=1 or AT+CMEE=2).
• Get or change the configurations of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For example, change the GSM network (AT+COPS), bearer service type (AT+CBST), radio link protocol parameters (AT+CRLP), SMS centre address (AT+CSCA) and storage of SMS messages (AT+CPMS).
• Save and restore configurations of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For example, save (AT+CSAS) and restore (AT+CRES) settings related to SMS messaging such as the SMS centre address.

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