When not to use a DBMS

Main costs of using a DBMS:
- High initial investment in hardware, software,training
and possible need for additional hardware.
- Overhead for providing generality, security, recovery, integrity, and concurrency control.
Generality that a DBMS provides for defining and processing data.
When a DBMS may be unnecessary:
If the database and applications are simple, well defined, and not expected to change.
If there are stringent real-time requirements that may not be met because of DBMS overhead.
If access to data by multiple users is not required.

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