how to download youtube videos

Why you should download/save videos from youtube :

You found an interesting video from youtube and you want to save/download it to your computer and later share it with your friend or keep it as a collection. However, by default Youtube doesn't allow users to save/download the videos. It only allow user to send a hyperlink to the friends and invite them to go to youtube website to view the videos.

It will become a problem because these video may gone forever due to copyright infringement issues, why not save/download the video before it's too late ?

Steps to save/download the video from youtube

For Internet Explorer (PC) users

1) First of all, to make your job easier, you are advised to faster access to youtube.com.

2) Click your favorite video clip, you can see the URL in your browser becomes something like this :

3) highlight the URL (like above) and right click the mouse and select "copy"

4) Paste the URL at our download page

5) When the download link shows, You should right-click -> "Save Target As" OR copy and paste the link into your download manager. Note: You must change the file extension to .flv

6) The .flv file is not a common multimedia file, you need a software called FLV player to play it.

7) Install the FLV player into your computer.

8) Select the video clip that you downloaded and play

9) If you want to convert the FLV video and play it in IPod, PSP, mobile phone(3GP format), then you need to download

How to make your home secure?


The protection of your family is one of the most important issues to consider and keeping them safe

involves making sure your house is a secure environment for everyone, whether you are away on business often or work from home. Most people living in modest accommodation don’t realize that a home alarm system could be beneficial even for them. Don’t leave it too late, experiencing a burglary or intruder breaking in whilst your family are upstairs asleep is a frightening wake up call for everyone involved.

Burglars who generally look for opportunities in residential areas want quiet areas with big gardens and private surroundings. They watch out for obvious weaknesses such as reduced lighting, bushes to conceal their actions, doors and windows left unlocked and ladders stored at the back of the house providing them with the equipment needed to reach upstairs windows. Take the time to make some

Preventative measures and you will reduce the risk of a break-in immediately.[1]

2.Related Work:

a)Fingerprint Recognition for Home Security:

Protecting one's home is very important and there are so many ways to do so with the different security systems available. There are alarms, sensors and surveillance cameras just to name a few. The development of fingerprint technology has made it possible to protect your home in a more sophisticated way.

Biometric technology is one of the newest forms of home security. This form of technology has been used thoroughly in businesses and it is starting to be used more frequently by people looking for a more reliable way to secure their home from outsiders. Biometric technology uses unique human traits in order to provide access to a secured area. This technology involves scanning a location on the body in most cases a finger or the eye to create a template for registration. This image is stored and when the person attempts to access a secured building by scanning the applicable body part entry is either granted or denied based on the stored image.

Most of the home security methods that use biometrics involve the replacement of a key lock with a lock that incorporates a scanner. Some of these biometric locks can be built with a key entry just in case the owner wants the ability to override the biometric scanner. Everyone in the household and any other person you would like to have access to the home will have to register his or her fingerprints. What is convenient about this form of home security is that you can add or delete people from the registration process as you see fit. This gives you so much control over who can enter your home. For example, if you want a neighbor to water your flowers while you are away on vacation you can register their fingerprint so they can have access to your home and then upon return from vacation you can simply delete the neighbor's fingerprint .Fingerprints are very unique and there really is no way for other individuals to access your home if they don't pass the biometric scan.

Using fingerprint recognition is one of the best ways to secure your home.[2]

b)Wireless Security Cameras:

If you are convince what you need for security needs then determine particularly of what you are wanted to achieve with a latest camera system. Wireless camera is great for your small office or home. This is easy to set-up and comparatively inexpensive. Wireless camera is the modern evolution of camera system. There are several advantages present in using wireless security camera. The benefit offered is the capacity to be set-up at any locations. Cable is not a one factor for wireless camera in signal range.

So this can be set-up indoors and as well as the outdoor. Wireless camera can also be installed together with the home computer's network. Specified a greater hard drive or a single hard drive space, wireless camera can save up weeks of recording. These security systems rely on the IP-based cameras. Camera system conveys data feed towards a Web server intended for presentation by the authorized users even though several security cameras include their individual server space. Distinctive cameras carry other advantages toward a wireless security camera system. For instance the bullet security camera is an exceptional security camera which offers field of vision and excellent range.

Wireless camera systems include some options. This option is Infrared LED light that can offer a wireless camera system with an outdoor camera system and night vision that facilitates a security camera to endure the elements. Camera software also endow with the wireless security network with the capability to outlook its video feed distantly, while the users are out or on the subway. If linked into a television or computer, the live feed on the security camera can be immediately recorded to the DVD, cassette and hard drive depends on which is more convenient.

c)Exterior Home Security Lighting:

Many burglars quickly realize that a good quality security system that includes ample illumination is quite a significant deterrent to all of their activities; since most law breakers like to work under the cover of darkness. An adequate lighting system is truly the answer to the problem of keeping any home safe. More importantly, they must not reachable by the hands of any unwanted visitor.

All the outside door entry doors should be the number one priority when designing any home safekeeping plan. This is not to insinuate that the windows may not also be used to violate the premises. Most thieves and people who have underhanded motives try to focus on the primary entry doors and windows that are easily accessible. Their hope is that they are in a dark location, concealed by bushes or has just been left unlocked when the homeowners left. This will give them a very simple and available exit route after robbing the home

If by some chance the homeowner decides that they simply can not afford to operate a lighting system all night, a motion activated detector is always something to consider. This device will automatically activate any lights that are available when motion of any kind is sensed. The burglar may believe that he or she is approaching a very desirable place to attack; that is until the lights are triggered by the motion detector device. The first thing to remember is that if you have decided to make use of any motion detector it is always best to carefully test the entire installation.[3]

Understanding Carbon Monoxide and How to Keep Your Family Safe:

Carbon monoxide is a colorless and odor less gas that is usually caused by incomplete combustion of a fossil fuel burning appliance. Incomplete combustion can be caused by multiple factors such as the improper venting of a heating appliance, cracked heat exchangers, back drafting of heating equipment, improper use of appliances, and improper use of equipment in a closed or confined space. It is a very good idea to also have appropriate detectors installed in your home.

Health risks of exposure generally develop with in 8 hours. Usually health effects are seen when gas levels in the home are higher then 10 parts per million (PPM). Exposure can bring about health effects such as headaches, weakness, dizziness, confusion and watering eyes. Some of the more severe symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are severe headache, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, and severe flu like symptoms. Carbon monoxide can be lethal at higher concentrations. The danger of the gas is that there is no odor and color. The only method of detection is with the use of detectors.

There are also battery operated detectors that can produce a sound alert and others that provide a measurement in the form of a digital reading of the amount of carbon monoxide in the home.

Proper placement of carbon monoxide detectors is very important for the proper detection of carbon monoxide. The consumer products safety commission recommends that a detector be installed close to the bedrooms in the home. Multiple detectors are recommended. Install a detector close to the bedrooms and on each living level in order to provide maximum coverage to possible exposure.

Detectors should not be installed next to the combustion equipment in the home because the equipment will emit small amounts of carbon monoxide and can produce false readings.

One important caveat is that carbon monoxide detectors are not smoke detectors. They will not alert you to the presence of smoke or fire.[4]


Secure home works in a much automated fashion. It provides a control panel to the user, this control panel allows the user to activate or deactivate his alarm, and once the alarm is activated it starts sensing for danger. Sensor works in the way that it as soon as it finds a sensitive state which is pre defined it continues to sense, as soon as it finds a threat it gives a prompt on the control panel and activates the alarm which further breaks into two situations, either it detected a fire or a burglary attempt. If it detected a burglary attempt then it seals down the house and makes a call to the police and the head user. If it detected a fire which it does by smoke sensors then it activates the sprinklers and places a call to the fire brigade and The head user. After that the user can de activates the alarm from the control panel once he arrives.

Pseudo Working:

a)Manual description:

Input alphabets: ∑ = {0, 1, S}












We have modeled our system on the up to date research lines and state of the art technology. We have used the concepts of user safety along with trying to disarm the culprit.

Start State:

The system until given an input is in this idle state waiting for a user command (input). It is here that the initial boot up is performed if given the respective input.

When input=s; a self loop is called and we end up again in the start state.

When input=1; the system is activated and we end up in the activated state.

When input=0; the system is de activated and we end up in the deactivated state.


This state is just kind of a latch that takes us to a step closer to fully operational state leaving us with 100% fool proof security.

When input=s; we deactivated the system and we end up in the deactivate state.

When input=1/0; we proceed to the sensor state.


When respective input at start or any other state is given the system ends up at the de activate state which shuts down the sensors.

When input=1/s; we are activating the system and we end up in activate state.

When input=0; it’s a self loop and we end up in deactivate state.


We can manually switch on/off the sensors installed on different locations (doors, windows, chimneys’). And after the sensors are switched on, they with time gather data and pass it to the sensor state because it is here that the data is been analyzed and a security repot is being transmitted to the next state.

When input=0; the report depicts that everything is normal and no threat found, thus it keeps on sensing in a self loop.

When input=1; it finds a threat, it displays a prompt and the alarm goes off and we end up in the alarm state.

When input=s; it deactivates the system


As it receives security up to date report from the sensor state. It displays the information on the monitor. As soon as it receives a warning sign, it displays a danger prompt along with details and state transition take place. As soon as something (fire / theft) is sensed, the previous state activates this alarm. This is just a means of alerting people nearby. Another feature is that we have set separate tones for fire and theft detection.

When input=s; dummy

When input=1; the smoke sensor has detected smoke and we go to the sprinkler state.

When input=0; break in has been detected and we go to the seal state.

Locks seal:

After the alarm goes off, all the entrance locations along with the internal doors, cabinets, cupboards are sealed. This means that family member/ members present inside the home are also trapped. But no reasons to be tensed, because every sensitive safe and door is installed with a numeric keypad attach to it. So we can enter a password (pre-defined) to open the respective door/safe and come out. As this password is set by the family and even can be changed as required.

When input=s; dummy

When input=1/0 call police;


As soon as the alarm goes off because of smoke been detected. The alarm passes the input as a latch to the next state. So if it was fire alarm, the sprinklers will be turned on at the place from where the sensor detected fire and the sprinklers near by.

When input=s; dummy

When input=1/0; a call is placed to the fire brigade and we are at call head state.

Call police/Fire Brigade:

Now if fire or theft is detected then call will be connected to the respected department (fire brigade/ police). And the message recorded at the time of installation is been played that has the address of our home. The contact numbers of police station and fire brigade is also fed at the time of installation.

When input=s; dummy.

When input=1/0; we end up in call head state.

Call Head:

Irrespective of the kind of security breech a call is connected to the house owner. And the message that was recorded at the time of installation is been played.

When input=1/0/s; sensor state.

5.Future Work:

a)Biometric Door Locks:

Biometric locks are definitely upgrades over regular locks, with identification features based on who you are as a person rather than on little bits of metal that can be easily lost, copied, or stolen.

First off, installing a biometric lock is simply far easier than you'd expect. In fact, it's generally easier than installing an ordinary lock. Instead of being built into the door itself, the lock is attached to the outside. This allows the whole procedure to take place in as little as twenty minutes, and eschews the need for a locksmith or other specialized handyman. So right off the bat, before you even get into using your new lock, you'll find it a lot less troublesome than you may have thought.

So you've got your new lock installed, time to sigh and throw out all your keys, right? Not necessarily. Most biometric locks will leave it up to you as to whether or not you continue to use a key-based lock, completely separate from your biometric locking system. You can use one or the other depending on different situations, or both for the absolute most layers of security. Biometric locks improve on your security options while not taking away what you already have available to you. Instead of replacing what works, you simply add on to it.[5]

b)Automated Home Security System:

As the world gets more and more technologically advanced, we find new technology coming in deeper and deeper into our personal lives even at home. Home automation is becoming more and more popular around the world and is becoming a common practice.

The process of home automation works by making everything in the house automatically controlled using technology to control and do the jobs that we would normally do manually. Best example is how poker and casino players from around the world are now capable of enjoying the same game's and reaping their benefits from the comfort of their home while sitting at their computers. It is much easier to install home automation in a house while it is still being built, since you have the ability to put things inside the walls to save space. Though, people who have houses already built can still have home automation done in a less intrusive way through wireless systems.

Home automation takes care of a lot of different activities in the house. Some of these things are as simple as turning on the sprinklers at a certain time every day and detecting burglars in the middle of the night. Others are much more advanced like sensing the presence of the person in a room and adjusting light ambiance, the temperature in the room, the volume of the music, according to different factors like the day of the week and the time.

Do these things sound good to you? Well you can easily have your home automated by having a home automation company come and wire your house. This can sometimes be expensive but you will definitely love the different perks of having an automated house. You can even decide to tweak some of the programs on your own if you’re savvy.

The word home automation can be termed as the usage of house hold appliances. This includes house hold appliances and also the building automation. House hold appliances mainly concentrate on kitchen based appliances. The appliance which carries more impetus on house hold appliance could be the automatic mixer. Most of the ladies are mainly depend on this equipment. As this makes the kitchen activity very easy and also time saving nature.

While going for other related house hold appliance the modern kitchen carries modern smoker. This excavates the kitchen smoke out of the building range, rather than to encircle the smoke inside the kitchen itself. Recently a fuel saving stove has been introduced that is called as the Ignition stove. It works on current only but it never needs fuel such as liquefied petroleum gas, kerosene, etc.

Another kitchen ware which adores the whole house could be termed as four burners stove. It slows down the cooking time at the same time we can cook several varieties of recipe. Delicious variety of food could be inculcated by using microwave oven. It bakes and keeps hot the need food items. Time could be set for heating any sauce like materials, so that we need worry on misshapenness while cooking in process. Another important home automation could be given more stress on the word refrigeration.

As we want to keep any food items or any liquid items in cooler manner it has to be refrigerated. It needs the help refrigerator of different models and different capacity. This has emerged as single door or of double door refrigerator. Consumers select different company according to their need and interest. The building automation things also come into existence while we discuss on home automation. Overall a house has to be well equipped with various types of house hold appliance and building automation such as flooring tiles, bathroom tiles, kitchen tiles and this includes all interior decorative materials for a fascinating house to dwell.


In the current situation, the safety and well being of our family is the most important issue to consider and keeping them safe involves making sure your house is a secure environment for everyone, whether you are away on business often or work from home.

As the world is developing more and more devices to help us tackle with the security issues. We are introduced with high technology cameras, laser beams, air pressure detectors etc all these devices are making this world a better place to live and providing us the satisfaction, so we could enjoy our life.

Here basic level of home monitoring has been implemented. The system is extensible and more levels can be further developed using automatic motion/glass breaking detectors so the solution can be integrated with these and other detection systems. In case of remote monitoring other appliances can also be monitored such that if the level of temperature rises above certain level then it should generate SMS or sensors can also be applied that can detect gas, smoke or fire in case of emergency the system will automatically generate SMS.

How to prevent from Hacking

There are many ways when a hacker would try to scam you into receiving a file etc, so that you will take the bait and help him with the Trojan/virus installation on your hard disk drive. If you need just one way to stop being hacked, the best way is to install an all-in-one solution with anti-virus, firewall and anti-spyware solution.

We personally use Norton Internet Security and we update our subscription every year. Another similar product which you may consider is Zone Alarm, but we recommend Norton for their years and track records in the anti-virus arena. BTW, we don't get commission for recommending, so you can trust our advise. Not to forget that I am a trained hacker myself.

Nevertheless, you must know that whether or not your PC will be hacked will depend very much on your actions as well. For example, downloading files from warez sites and poor habits of opening up strange email attachments, is as good as inviting hackers to break your door. Some time ago, I have the opportunity to try removing a malignant spyware installed on a friend's machine. It took me 8 hours despite my experience, and eventually we had to reinstall the entire OS. Some of you might say that I should have reinstall it after a short tryout, however, I preferred to take the challenge but failed. :)

Prevention is always better than cure. If you would like to take the risk, a common practice (for some of us) is to use another PC when we need to do something risky. With constant PC upgrades, many of us could easily keep an older PC (at least one) just for this purpose. This reminds me of the hacking class that I attended a few years back - the instructor had to reinstall all the workstations almost every lesson to get rid of the remaining virus or trojans from the previous lessons.

Another way of getting into trouble is to visit cracks, warez, and keygen websites. There are several ways which your PC may be infected:

1) Trojans, virus or spyware hidden in the software cracks, or key gen.

2) Trojans, virus, or spyware hidden in attachments of emails, and this include pictures.

Al thought we did mention earlier that you must have at least one security software installed on your PC, however, it is impossible to guarantee that the software will definitely protect you against Any or All the possible viruses, Trojans and malicious programs.

If you find that your PC behaves abnormally, such as unexpected pop-up ads, shutting down of applications, poor internet connections (or busy connections), etc, there is a good chance that your PC is infected. You will need to waste quite a bit of time to perform a complete PC scan, try to locate and remove the infected file, or to reformat and reinstall the entire hard disk again. Again, prevention is always better than cure, so backup your data at all times. Some virus does more than simply shutting down your PC, they can damage your hard disk physically by force writing over a specific sector repeatedly within a very short time. We will not go into that.

We will summarize the 2 generic recommendations below.

  • Install a good internet security software (currently Norton 360 is recommended) and pay for the auto-update. This is important.
  • Do not visit high-risk websites or click on any of the links there.
I have some other ways in form of software to prevent ur system and accounts from hacking.. feel free to contact me at raju_rulz@hotmail.com

Hack Facebook Account for Sure

Follow these 4 tips to hack Facebook

I will cover 4 methods over here:

1 keyloggers
2 facebook phishing
3. Social engineering
4. Primary email address hack

Facebook phishing:

I have taken this method first because i think this is the most popular method/way of hacking facebook. I studied various facebook surveys taken on web about hacking facebook. The results of these surveys show "Phishing" as the most used method to hack facebook and to note…"Phishing is favorite method of facebook hackers". So, friends.. beware of facebook Phishing. Facebook staff is working hard to avoid these Facebook phishers. Phishing not only allows you to hack Facebook but also almost any email account. You have to only get the trick used to make a phisher, which i think is very easy. I learnt it without any difficulty. But, remember, this is only for educational purpose. I will not extend this topic over here as i have added more on Phishing in my article


This is my second favorite, as only thing you have to do is remotely install a keylogger application (if you don't have any physical access to victim computer). Keylogging becomes more easy if you have physical access to victim computer as only thing you have to do is install a keylogger and direct it to your destination so that it will send all recorded keystrokes to pointed destination. What a keylogger does is it records the keystrokes into a log file and then you can use these logs to get required Facebook password and thus can hack facebook password.

3. Social engineering:

This sounds to be pretty not working at beginning. Even I was neglecting this way. But, once, I thought of using it against my friend on Facebook and i got his Facebook password very easily by this method. I think many of you might be knowing how what this social engineering, For newbies, social engineering is method of retrieving password or answer of security question simply be quering with the victim. You have to be very careful while using this as victim must not be aware of your intention. Just ask him cautiously using your logic.

4.Primary email address hack
So far, i found these Facebook hacking methods as best and working ways to hack facebook account passwords. I never encourage hacking Facebook or any email account,,I just wanna make you aware about Facebook dangers online. I will appreciate your effort if you mention any other Facebook hacking method.

I have some hacking softwares as well, if anybody want it.. feel free to contact me at raju_rulz@hotmail.com


Hacking Website And Computers

Recall Ben and Louis from the introduction. Both of them have houses, both of which are potential points of attack for Eve. Hopefully, both of them lock their doors and windows, or Eve could walk right in. Even if they do lock the entrances to their houses, Eve might be a skilled lockpicker. When people have valuable possessions that they need to protect, they will buy high-grade locks that are difficult to pick in order to keep intruders out. With the exception of locking mechanisms themselves, physical security is relatively easy to judge because you can see it. If you have thicker doors and windows, they are harder to break down. If you have security guards, it is harder to sneak in.

Unfortunately, computer security isn’t so obvious. Attacks are done electronically instead of physically, and you can’t see electricity (and even if you could, the signals that a computer processes are so complex that you would not be able to interpret them). It is therefore very easy, so to speak, to leave the “front door” of your computer wide open.

One might argue that it’s not a big deal for the average user, because who’s going to target them? They don’t have anything of value, right? Wrong. Most people store passwords and credit card numbers on their computers. If it’s easy to break in, why not? Credit card numbers are a criminal’s goldmine, and passwords lead to more credit card numbers. The computer itself is of value; attackers can use it to propagate attacks/viruses to even more computers.

Furthermore, whenever you browse websites such as Facebook, Amazon, or Bank of America, you make the assumption that such sites are safe — i.e., that no one is going to break into said website and steal your data. Websites are nothing more than more computers, so the same vulnerabilities that exist on your computer probably also exist on those websites. While there aren’t really any good ways to guarantee that a given website is following good security practices, it is important to be cognizant of what practices they should be following, so if you discover that they aren’t, you know to to stop trusting that website.

Hacking yahoo id

Everywhere there is a hype about a hacker , hacker and hacker, someone hacked into your mail account ,or someone hacked into your computer ,or someone cracked open your internet bank account , right?
But how is this possible? Learn it from a hacker and then prevent your self from being a victim.

Hacking A email – There a certain steps what a hacker does so that he can gain access to your email id.

1. He will get details about you , because he will want to know whose id he is hacking and will try to find you out on social networks. He will copy all your information out there and try to use “Forgot Password” Option so that he can get it opened without any hard work. If no , then there is a plan B.

2. He will First Create a clone page of the login Page , like suppose yahoo.com , he will create login form.

3 . Then he will send you a email which have a subject as “Yahoo : You Email Id is soon going to be deactivated” and then content will be complete rubbish , and will contain a link to the cloned page, like “Please Login here to make sure your account is Active”.

4. Now as soon as you click that link you are in their trap and then when you fill out the form , you are gone.

How to Hack yahoo ID

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Tips from a hacker

Never respond To such Mails as they will land you up in big problems.
- No Damn Email service will ask you to login again at any cost , by sending an email to you.
- Never put the matching information which you entered in case of a lost password on social networking website.
- Always be sure , which link you are clicking , is it outside the main url , (here: mail.yahoo.com)
- Check who is sending you the email , someone link support@yahoo.com or yahoosupport@yahoo.com or any other email id.
-Many cyber threats can be prevented with the right data and email security
Special thanks to the Hacker (does not want to go Public)



1. Introduction

Spoofing is the action of making something look like something that it is not in order to gain unauthorized access to a user's private information. The idea of spoofing originated in the 1980s with the discovery of a security hole in the TCP protocol. Today spoofing exists in various forms namely IP, URL and Email spoofing.

Email Spoofing:

Email spoofing may occur in different forms, but all have a similar result: a user receives email that appears to have originated from one source when it actually was sent from another source. Email spoofing is often an attempt to trick the user into making a damaging statement or releasing sensitive information (such as passwords).

Examples of spoofed email
• email claiming to be from a system administrator requesting users to change their passwords to a specified string and threatening to suspend their account if they do not do this
• email claiming to be from a person in authority requesting users to send them a copy of a password file or other sensitive information
• E-mail spoofing is e-mail activity in which the sender address and other parts of the e-mail header are altered to appear as though the e-mail originated from a different source. Because core SMTP doesn't provide any authentication, it is easy to impersonate and forge emails. It is usually fraudulent but can be legitimate. It is commonly used in spam and phishing e-mails to hide the origin of the e-mail message. By changing certain properties of the e-mail, such as the From, Return-Path and Reply-To fields (which can be found in the message header), ill-intentioned users can make the e-mail appear to be from someone other than the actual sender. The result is that, although the e-mail appears to come from the address indicated in the From field (found in the e-mail headers), it actually comes from another source.
• Occasionally (especially if the spam requires a reply from the recipient, as in advance-fee frauds), the source of the spam e-mail is indicated in the Reply-To field (or at least a way of identifying the spammer); if this is the case and the initial e-mail is replied to, the delivery will be sent to the address specified in the Reply-To field, which could be the spammer's address. However, most spam emails (especially malicious ones with a trojan/virus payload, or those advertising a web site) forge this address too, and replying to it will annoy an innocent third party.
• Prior to the advent of unsolicited commercial email (spam) as a viable business model, "legitimately spoofed" email was common. For example, a visiting user might use the local organization's SMTP server to send email from the user's foreign address. Since most servers were configured as open relays, this was a common practice. As spam email became an annoying problem, most of these "legitimate" uses fell victim to antispam techniques.

How to Avoid Email Spoofing??????
1. Strong Website Authentication:

This approach would require all users of legitimate e-commerce and e-banking sites to strongly authenticate themselves to the site using a physical token such as a smart card.

The positive aspects of this approach are:
• Even if a user falls for a phishing attack, a phisher can’t log into real site without the right physical token.
• Users are given a stronger sense of trust in their transactions with business web site.
The downsides of this approach are:
• User education
• Set up time delays
• Desktop software installation
• High management costs
• Potentially high cost per user

2. Mail Server Authentication

The Anti-Spam Research Group (ASRG) and the Anti-Spam Alliance have been investigating solutions to the growing spam problem based on authenticating sending mail servers. There are numerous technical proposals such as RMX for how this will work.

The positives of this approach are:
• Easy to configure at senders mail servers
• Makes it harder for phishers to be anonymous
• Legitimate business email can be better identified – lower spam false positives

The downsides of this approach are:
• Requires sender and recipient gateways to both use these methods
• SMTP sender is not visible to recipient
• From: address still can be spoofed and users can be fooled
• Will be a problem for anyone using a 3rd party emailing service
• Doesn’t accommodate email forwarding

3. Digitally Signed Email With Desktop Verification

This approach is based on the use of the existing industry standard S/MIME, which is a secure email standard supported by most email client software that is in use in corporations today. Companies who are vulnerable to phishing attacks, such as financial institutions, payment processors and e-commerce vendors, would send their emails with a digital signature attached. Note that the digital signature would be attached at the outbound gateway, rather than requiring the individual sender to apply the digital signature. This automation at the gateway would further increase the adoption rate of such a solution. When users receive these digitally signed emails, their business email clients (e.g. Microsoft Outlook, Lotus Notes, Novell Groupwise, etc) will automatically verify the signature for authenticity. If an email arrives to a user that is either not signed, or the signature can not be verified, the user would know that it is not a genuine email from the sending bank or ecommerce provider.

The positives of this approach are:
• S/MIME is a standard in business email clients – would work without any additional software deployment to email users
• Makes the “From:” address impossible to spoof without detection
• Any phisher who digitally signs their email must register with a certificate authority – provides a stronger identity audit trail when prosecuting the phisher
• Legitimate business email can be better identified by end-users – provides better trust ` with customers
The downsides of this approach are:
• Recipients still have to inspect the “From:” address for misleading domains (e.g. a phishing email could have a valid digital signature with the email address of account.update@ebay.custservices.com. The end user would have to know that ebay.custservices.com is not in fact Ebay because ebay.com is not in the domain portion of the address.)
• Not all email clients support S/MIME (e.g. Hotmail, AOL, Yahoo! Mail, Outlook Web Access for Exchange 5.5)
• Recipients may not check certificate revocation status

4. Digitally Signed Email With GatewayVerification

Similarly to Solution 3 proposed above, this approach uses the S/MIME standard for email that is widely available today. Instead of relying on the end user’s email client to verify the signature on the email, a gateway server at the mail relay level would verify the signatures before they were even received by the receiver’s email server. This approach would work well for ISPs and web email providers who wish to support signed email as a way to defeat phishing attacks.

The positives of this approach are:
• S/MIME is a standard today that is supported by many email gateways
• Makes the “From:” address impossible to spoof without detection
• Any phisher who digitally signs their email must register with a certificate authority – provides a
stronger identity audit trail when prosecuting the phisher
• Legitimate business email can be better identified by end-users – provides better trust with customers

The downsides of this approach are:
• Sender and recipient gateways must both understand S/MIME digital signatures
• Doesn’t prevent valid signatures from having misleading From: addresses (e.g. a phishing email could have a valid digital signature with the email address of account.update@ebay.custservices.com. The recipient gateway would likely pass the email on and the end user would have to know that ebay.custservices.com is not in fact Ebay because ebay.com is not in the domain portion of the address.)

Linux based analog to digital converter

What is an ADC, and why do we need one?

In our daily life, anything we deal like sound, pressure, voltage or any measurable quantity, are usually in analog form so what if we want to interface any analog sensor with our digital controllers? There must be something that translates the analog inputs to digital output, and so analog to digital convertors come to play. Let's start with a simple example: suppose we had an outdoor unit where we wanted to monitor the sound, pressure, voltage or any measurable quantity on a regular basis. Obviously, we would put a circuit inside the unit and walk out to read the measurement. We wanted to know the value. This could obviously become a hassle, especially during inclement weather. To make it more convenient, we could put a remote readout inside our home. In order for the remote readout to work, though, we need to convert the measurement reading into an electrical signal that can be read by the remote readout. Usually we call them ADC (Analog to digital convertor). Before going to learn how to interface an ADC with a controller we first take a look at basic methods of analog to digital conversion.
This is a sample of the large number of analog-to-digital conversion methods. The basic principle of operation is to use the comparator principle to determine whether or not to turn on a particular bit of the binary number output. It is typical for an ADC to use a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) to determine one of the inputs to the comparator. So how does a device like the remote readout work?
The answer is actually quite simple. It works on the principle of changing electrical currents and voltages. Some specialized electronics components change the currents or voltages in a circuit with a change in measurement. We simply use these components in a circuit that outputs a voltage that is proportional to a changing measurement. Then we use our ADC to change the voltage (an analog signal) into a digital signal. A device such as the remote readout is programmed to display different values for a given digital signal. Although we've skipped over a lot of the finer details, we can now at least understand the concepts behind analog to digital conversion and why it is necessary.

Instructions for making an ADC

To build the ADC that we used for our project, it is necessary to have some basic knowledge of circuit diagrams and soldering. If you have no prior experience with these items, you may find a basic "do-it-yourself" manual for electric circuitry to be of some assistance.
The first thing you need to do in order to build the circuit is to obtain the necessary electronics components. Most of these components can be obtained from a similar electronics supply store, with the exception of the IC chips, which is also the company that supplied the circuit design. Be sure to read the notes below the parts list regarding some purchasing issues.

Tips on Circuit Construction

1) First and foremost, try to have a layout of how you want to place all the components on the PC board before you begin soldering. Taking this extra step can eliminate a lot of confusion and unnecessary wiring during assembly.
2) If you purchased the PC board from the parts list, use one (or both if you connect them) of the solid strips that runs around the perimeter of the board in order to make all your ground connections. It is much easier to do this than to run an individual ground wire for every ground connection.
3) make sure to orient the diodes correctly in the circuit. The whole point of a diode is to only let current flow one way (like a check valve), so if you get the two ends switched, the circuit will not function because current will not flow through the diode.
4) Also be sure to take note of the proper pin numbering on the IC chips. The circuit diagram has the connections to the chips laid out by pin number, not by visual position. The proper IC chip orientation and pin numbering is as follows:
Note that the semicircle at the "top" of the chip indicates the position of Pin 1. If there is no semicircle, then Pin 1 will be indicated by a dot as shown in the diagrams. Regardless of how Pin 1 is indicated, the numbering remains the same.
5) Be sure to orient the electrolytic capacitors in the proper direction, as they are polar (unless otherwise noted). The negative lead is always the shorter lead and will be indicated by a series of minus symbols on the corresponding side of the capacitor.
6) The numbers for the parallel port terminals are written on the connector itself right next to the pins. The numbers are rather small, so be careful not to confuse them, as the connections to the parallel connector are indicated by pin number on the circuit diagram.
7) The ground connections on the circuit diagram are indicated by a symbol that looks like this: .
8) Any IC pins marked "N.C." are not connected to anything else in the circuit.
9) For the input wires (shown in the lower right-hand corner of the diagram), the positive wire is connected to the resistor "R5", and the negative wire is connected to ground.

Testing the ADC

Once the circuit is built, it can be tested using the program found in ADC circuit description. You simply connect the circuit to your PC using the parallel port, apply an input voltage to the input wires, and the test program will produce a value for the given voltage. A good test for the circuit is to connect the input wires to a function generator running a sine wave, and verify that the output values reproduce a sine wave when graphed. In order to do this, however, the test source program must be modified. Shown below is the graph that we obtained from the ADC test values:

The digital values are divided by 255 because the signal is a 8-bit signal. Since the signal is binary, 8-bits translates to 2^8, or 255. 1 is subtracted from that value for conversion purposes, making it 255. The values are also multiplied by 4.5 to obtain an approximate magnitude for the signal readings. The signal we used was slightly over 4 Volts, so we used 4.5 just to be safe. Once the digital values are converted using the above formula, they should produce a graph something like the one above when graphed vs. time.

Following steps are involved in the procedure to display ADC output at the terminal using Linux environment. We want to read ADC output from parallel port so first we need permission to access parallel port. After accessing parallel port we initialize

parallel data port D0 to D7 to zero. We now that by default we can write data to parallel port if we need to read data from parallel port we need to send control signal to parallel port to make it ready for reading.
After doing all above step we are able to read parallel port. These all steps belong to our program (software) for reading data.
In this project analog source is variable resistance this resistance is connected on analog input of ADC.ADC convert these analog resistances into digital output these output pins of ADC are connect to data pin of parallel port D0 to D7. We know computer only deal with binary so we must give digital data at parallel port.
When we run code output of ADC will appear on output.
The Parallel Port is the most commonly used port for interfacing. This port includes input of up to 9 bits or the output of 12 bits. The port is composed of 4 control lines (i.e. pins 1, 14, 16, 17), 5 status lines (i.e. pins 10, 11, 12, 13, 15) and 8 data lines (i.e. pins 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). It's found commonly on the back of your PC as a D-Type 25 Pin female connector.
Function Generator:

A function generator is a piece of electronic test equipment or software used to generate electrical waveforms. These waveforms can be either repetitive, or single-shot in which case some kind of triggering source is required (internal or external).
Another type of function generator is a sub-system that provides an output proportional to some mathematical function of its input; for example, the output may be proportional to the square root of the input. Such devices are used in feedback control systems and in analog computers.


Analog function generators usually generate a triangle waveform as the basis for all of its other outputs. The triangle is generated by repeatedly charging and discharging a capacitor from a constant current source. This produces a linearly ascending or descending voltage ramp. As the output voltage reaches upper and lower limits, the charging and discharging is reversed using a comparator, producing the linear triangle wave. By varying the current and the size of the capacitor, different frequencies may be obtained.
A 50% duty cycle square wave is easily obtained by noting whether the capacitor is being charged or discharged, which is reflected in the current switching comparator's output. Most function generators also contain a non-linear diode shaping circuit that can convert the triangle wave into a reasonably accurate sine wave. It does so by rounding off the hard corners of the triangle wave in a process similar to clipping in audio systems.
The type of output connector from the device depends on the frequency range of the generator. A typical function generator can provide frequencies up to 20 MHz and uses a BNC connector, usually requiring a 50 or 75 ohm termination. Specialized RF generators are capable of gigahertz frequencies and typically use N-type output connectors.
Function generators, like most signal generators, may also contain an attenuator, various means of modulating the output waveform, and often the ability to automatically and repetitively "sweep" the frequency of the output waveform (by means of a voltage-controlled oscillator) between two operator-determined limits. This capability makes it very easy to evaluate the frequency response of a given electronic circuit.
Some function generators can also generate white or pink noise.
More advanced function generators use Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) to generate waveforms. Arbitrary waveform generators use DDS to generate any waveform that can be described by a table of amplitude values.


An oscilloscope (commonly abbreviated to scope or O-scope) is a type of electronic test instrument that allows signal voltages to be viewed, usually as a two-dimensional graph of one or more electrical potential differences (vertical axis) plotted as a function of time or of some other voltage (horizontal axis). Although an oscilloscope displays voltage on its vertical axis, any other quantity that can be converted to a voltage can be displayed as well. In most instances, oscilloscopes show events that repeat with either no change, or change slowly. The oscilloscope is one of the most versatile and widely-used electronic instruments.

Automatic sweep mode

Triggered sweeps can offer a blank screen if there are no triggers. To avoid this, these sweeps include a timing circuit (millisecond range) that generates free-running triggers to provide a trace. Once triggers arrive, this timer stops providing pseudo-triggers. For observing low repetition rates, this mode can be de-selected.

Recurrent sweeps
If the input signal is periodic, the sweep repetition rate can be adjusted to display a few cycles of the waveform. Early (tube) 'scopes and lowest-cost 'scopes have sweep oscillators that run continuously, and are uncelebrated. Such oscilloscopes are very simple, comparatively inexpensive, and were useful in radio servicing and some TV servicing. Measuring voltage or time is possible, but only with extra equipment, and is quite inconvenient. They are primarily qualitative instruments.

Single Sweeps

Some 'scopes offer these -- the sweep circuit is manually armed (typically by a pushbutton or equivalent) "Armed" means it's ready to respond to a trigger. Once the sweep is complete, it resets, and will not sweep until re-armed. This mode, combined with a 'scope camera, captures single-shot events

Digital Trainer

The Vulcan Digital Logic Trainer Full Kit is a great combination of software simulation and hardware tool. The Vulcan is designed to introduce digital logic first via software simulation

Digital Multi meter:

A digital multimeter or DMM is one of the most widely used pieces of test equipment today. DMMs are available very cheaply and these digital multimeters can provide very high degrees of accuracy when measuring the parameters within an electronics or electrical circuit. As a result,A Digital multimeter can be a hand-held device useful for basic fault finding and field service work or a bench instrument which can measure to a very high degree of accuracy. They can be used to troubleshoot electrical problems in a wide array of industrial and household devices such as batteries, motor controls, appliances, power supplies, and wiring systems.


A typical multimeter may include features such as the ability to measure voltage, current and resistance.

How to Use DMM:

When using the meter it is possible to follow a number of simple steps:
1. Turn the meter on
2. Insert the probes into the correct connections - this is required because there may be a number of different connections that can be used.
3. Set switch to the correct measurement type and range for the measurement to be made. When selecting the range, ensure that the maximum range is above that anticipated. The range on the DMM can then be reduced as necessary. However by selecting a range that is too high, it prevents the meter being overloaded.
4. Optimise the range for the best reading. If possible enable all the leading digits to not read zero, and in this way the greatest number of significant digits can be read.
5. Once the reading is complete, it is a wise precaution to place the probes into the voltage measurement sockets and turn the range to maximum voltage. In this way if the meter is accidentally connected without thought for the range used, there is little chance of damage to the meter. This may not be true if it left set for a current reading, and the meter is accidentally connected across a high voltage point!

Measuring Current:

1. Insert the probes into the correct connections - in many meters there are a number of different connections for the probes. Often one labelled common into which the black probe is normally placed. The other probe should be entered into the correct socket for the current measurement to be made. Sometimes there is a special connection for current measurements, and sometimes a separate one for either low or high current measurements. Select the correct one for the current measurement to be made.
2. Set main selector switch on the meter switch to the correct measurement type, (i.e. current) and range for the measurement to be made. When selecting the range, ensure that the maximum range is above the expected reading anticipated. The range on the DMM can then be reduced as necessary. However by selecting a range that is too high, it prevents the meter being overloaded.
3. When the measuring the current, optimise the range for the best reading. If possible enable all the leading digits to not read zero, and in this way the greatest number of significant digits can be read.
4. Once the reading is complete, it is a wise precaution to place the probes into the voltage measurement sockets and turn the range to maximum voltage. In this way if the meter is accidentally connected without thought for the range used, there is little chance of damage to the meter. This may not be true if it left set for a current reading, and the meter is accidentally connected across a high voltage point!

Measuring Resistance:

There are a few simple steps required to make a resistance measurement with a digital multimeter:
1. Select the item to be measured: This may be anything where the resistance needs to be measured and estimate what the resistance may be.
2. Insert the probes into the required sockets Often a digital multimeter will have several sockets for the test probes. Insert these or check they are already in the correct sockets. Typically these might be labelled COM for common and the other where the ohms sign is visible. This is normally combined with the voltage measurement socket.
3. Turn on the multimeter
4. Select the required range The digital multimeter needs on and the required range selected. The range selected should be such that the best reading can be obtained. Normally the multimeter function switch will be labelled with the maximum resistance reading. Choose the one where the estimated value of resistance will be under but close to the maximum of the range. In this way the most accurate resistance measurement can be made.
5. Make the measurement With the multimeter ready to make the measurement the probes can be applied to the item that needs to be measured. The range can be adjusted if necessary.
6. Turn off the multimeter Once the resistance measurement has been made, the multimeter can be turned off to preserve the batteries. It is also wise to turn the function switch to a high voltage range. In this way if the multimeter is used to again for another type of reading then no damage will be caused if it is inadvertently used without selecting the correct range and function.