A GSM network is composed of several functional entities, whose functions and interfaces are specified. Figure below shows the layout of a generic GSM network. The GSM network can be divided into three broad parts.
1. The Mobile Station is carried by the subscriber.
2. The Base Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile Station.
3. The Network Subsystem, the main part of which is the Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC), performs the switching of calls between the mobile users, and between mobile and fixed network users.
The MSC also handles the mobility management operations. Not shown is the Operations and Maintenance Centre, which oversees the proper operation and setup of the network. The Mobile Station and the Base Station Subsystem communicate across the Um interface, also known as the air interface or radio link. The Base Station Subsystem communicates with the Mobile services Switching Centre across the A interface.
Figure General Architecture of a GSM network

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